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Concluded Research Projects during 2018-19

PIE 3566 : Evaluation of core set of mulberry germplasm for physiological efficiency and leaf quality 

Concluded Research Projects during 2017-18

PIE 3541 : Collection, characterization, evaluation, conservation and supply of mulberry genetic resources (Phase VIII) 

AIE 3542 : Collection, characterization, evaluation, conservation and supply of silkworm genetic resources (Phase VIII)  

ARP-3518 : Expression profiling of genes associated with resistance to Beauveria bassiana in Bombyx mori strains

Concluded Research Projects during 2016-17

AIT- 3544: Validation of Vitellogenin Receptor (VgR) gene expression levels as molecular indicator for fecundity and fertility in silkworm races (Bombyx mori) (Jun.2015 Dec.2016) (SBRL, Bengaluru with CSGRC Hosur) 
Ashok Kumar,CI [upto May,16],Geetha N Murthy,CI [from Jun16]-CSGRC Hosur
G. Ravikumar, PI - SBRL 


The project was implemented by SBRL, Bengaluru in collaboration with CSGRC, Hosur aimed to use vitellogenin receptor gene (VgR) transcript as an indicator for identifying B.mori silkworm germplasm stock with enhanced fecundity and fertility. 

Validation of VgR gene expression levels using silkworm germplasm accessions.

Selected B.mori breeds viz. multivoltine (4 nos), bivoltine (10 nos) and mutant (one no.) were reared under disease free conditions at CSGRC Hosur and pupae supplied to SBRL Kodathi. At SBRL, ovaries from the pupae were dissected out, RNA was extracted and first strand cDNA was synthesized. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time PCR were carried out with appropriately designed primers. The results revealed that, vitellogenin receptor gene expression could function as one of the molecular indicators for fecundity and fertility in Bombyx mori.

B.mori breeds with better fecundity and fertility can be identified using vitellogenin receptor gene expression as a molecular indicator.

Concluded Research Projects during 2015-16

CSGRC-PRP-001: Development of novel, high value products from silk waste nonwovens (Collaborative work with South India Trading Company, Bengaluru) (Apr.2015 Mar.2016)
Nivedita S, Rejendra Parekh. 

About 25% of silk in a cocoon cannot be reeled and is removed as waste which is dried and sold by the reeler at a very low rate. Out of the total returns, raw silk accounts for about 96% and the waste including pupa fetches only about 4%. Hence, the reeler has no option to convert it into useful products of higher value and is compelled to sell it off at a low price. A study was taken up to explore the possibilities of using the silk waste to make higher value products by converting silk waste into nonwovens through eco-friendly means with little investment and the various possible uses of the nonwovens were demonstrated.

To design and develop eco friendly nonwovens out of silk waste for making specific high value products.
To develop a range of novel products from the nonwovens

Silk waste including cut cocoons, reelers waste, short fibres silk waste, semi-processed waste, slivers, webs, etc. was procured from the Reeling division of CSGRC Hosur and areas of Ramanagaram district. The silk waste obtained was degummed, opened and laid in the web form, by hand on a cocoon sorting table. Natural and synthetic binders were used to bond the fibres in the web and utilized.

Products developed

Melamine coated Panel, Eco-friendly mouse pad, Panels for cubicles / partitions, Panels for ceilings, Yoga mat, Meditation / Prayer mat, Bulletin Board, Moulded articles, File folder, photo frames, carry bag and book cover


  • The products developed are novel and marketable after further testing to standardize the procedure and work out the economics if large scale production is taken up.

  • A mechanical device may be developed for large scale utilization of silk waste, which can be marketed / patented.

  • Fire retardants, stain guard, and other finishes can be applied.

  • Other applications such as window blinds, lamp shade, invitation cards, etc. can be developed

  • Blending of tasar silk waste may be attempted to impart additional properties.

  • Screening of the accessions in the genebank at CSGRC, Hosur could be taken up to identify those with high waste percentage / unreelable cocoons (mutants), flimsy built cocoons, etc. for developing these products.


Concluded Research Projects during 2014-15

PIG-3482 - Collection, introduction, characterisation, evaluation, conservation an d supply of mulberry genetic resources (April 2012 to March 2015)


  • Towards enrichment of ex situ mulberry field gene bank, two survey and exploration tours were conducted in Union territories i.e. Goa and Pondicherry and collected 15 mulberry germplasm. Besides, 23 mulberry accessions have been collected from KSSRDI, Thalagattapura. 

  • 65 mulberry germplasm accessions were characterized for different descriptors on morphology (22 descriptors), reproductive biology (23 descriptors), leaf anatomy (14 descriptors). Preponderance of femaleness was observed with 49 accessions (71.01 %), malenes 12 (17.39 %) and bisexual one (1.45 %). Six accessions MI-0891, MI-0870, MI-0867, MI-0901, MI-0896 and MI-0898 which have more than 5 desirable characters may be utilized for further evaluation in the hot spots and inclusion in the breeding programmes for stress tolerance.

  • 65 mulberry accessions were evaluated for growth and yield in the field gene bank (15 descriptors), biochemical (8 descriptors), natural incidence of diseases (3 diseases), 60 mulberry accessions were evaluated for growth and yield in the ARBD and 94 acc were evaluated (RBD) for rooting parameters (17 descriptors). Survival percentage with above 90 % was recorded in 4 accessions viz. MI-0865 MI-0877, MI-0884 and MI-0939 and four mulberry accessions viz. MI-0935, MI-0913, MI-0938 and MI-0916 have shown high performance for 5 multiple traits. Seven mulberry accessions viz. MI-0633, MI-0529, MI-0622, MI-0247, MI-0827, MI-0805 and MI-0695 performed better with more than 4 multiple desired traits on growth and yield parameters under ARBD evaluation.

  • Leaf yield more than 3 kg/plant observed in 5 acc. MI-0943, MI-0939, MI-0940, MI-0928, MI-0941 and total biomass more than 8 kg/plant viz., MI-0943, MI-0939, MI-0938, MI-0940, MI-0928 were identified under ex situ field evaluation trails. six accessions viz., MI-0940, MI-0872, MI-0939, MI-0938, MI-0936 and MI-0927 performed better for 5 multiple traits which may be utilized for crop improvement programmes. 

  • Mulberry Germplasm Information System (MGIS) which consists of database of 1138 mulberry accessions was maintained.

  • 696 indigenous and 222 exotic accessions were supplied to 16 indenters. Feed back information was collected from the indenters and updated.

  • 1269 mulberry accessions were being conserved in the ex situ field gene bank. Agave plant extract effectively used for termite control of the plants in the ex situ field gene bank.

  • National accession numbers were obtained for 31 new collections (Total 1214) accessions).

  • 125 mulberry accessions were tested for amenability for cryopreservation. MI-0778, MI-0788, MI-0789, MI-0792, MI-0796, MI-0797, MI-0798 and MI-0828 showed more than 70% survival after cryopreservation

AIG-3483 - Collection, introduction, characterisation, preliminary evaluation, conservation an d supply of silkworm genetic resources (April 2012 to March 2015)


  • 23 new silkworm breeds (8 MV and 15 BV) were collected from 5 Institutes CSRTI, Berhampore (6), CSRTI, Pampore (4), APSSRDI, Hindupur (8), CSRTI, Mysore (4) and SSTL, Kodathi (1). After two quarantine rearings and ensuring disease freeness, were accessioned and added to the gene bank.

  • National accession numbers obtained from NBAIR, Bengaluru for all these accessions.

  • 81 multivoltine germplasm accessions 365 BV and 20 mutants were confirmatorily characterized for different descriptors and updated in SGIS. 

  • All the 81 multivoltine germplasm accessions 365 BV and 20 mutants were evaluated for 12 important economic traits and updated in SGIS for each generation of conservation crops.

  • Characterisation and evaluation data of 81 multivoltine germplasm accessions 365 BV and 20 mutants were updated in SGIS.

  • 600 BV accessions were supplied to 15 indenters in 68 spells and 128 MV accessions were supplied to 10 indenters in 29 spells for PG research, evaluation and as breeding resource materials.

  • 466 silkworm genetic resources are being conserved in the gene bank following standard conservation protocols. 

  • National accession numbers were obtained for 23 new collections (Total of all 466 accessions).

  • Top performing multivoltine and bivoltine accessions were identified for multiple traits and also for individual traits. Variability of the SWGRs conserved was maintained.

CYR-3484 - Evaluation of silkworm genetic resources for post cocoon traits(April 2012 to March 2015)


  • 32 silkworm accessions have been evaluated for post cocoon traits during the period.

  • Top performing accessions have been identified for all 16 post cocoon characters, viz., eight reeling traits and eight raw silk quality traits.

  • SGIS databank has been updated. 

  • Seven MV accessions were evaluated for denier / filament length consistency studies under 5 seasonal trials.

  • 270 silkworm accessions were evaluated for fibroin / sericin content

  • Reeling waste was utilized to make nonwovens by a new eco-friendly method.

AIE-3454 : Evaluation of elite bivoltine siilkworm germplasm under different agro climatic conditions: All India Silkworm Germplasm Evaluation Programme Phase - II (August 2012 to February 2015)


  • Ten elite BV accessions identified at CSGRC, Hosur have been evaluated in 8 network centres located in different ago climatic zones of the country in six crops three crops each in spring and Autumn seasons as per the brushing programmes of the respective centres. 
  • CSR-2 and one local popular breed have been included as control accessions in the evaluation.
  • Three spring crops and three autumn crops have been completed with network centres and the data updated into the database. Better performing accessions of spring and autumn crops were identified.
    Accessions BBI-0348 performed better in 7 centres followed by BBE-0329, BBI-0290 in 5 centres and BBE-0266 and BBE-0216 in 4 centres in spring season.
  • Accessions BBE-0266 performed better in 6 centres followed by BBI-0348 BBE-0266, BBI-0338 and BBE-0268 in 5 centres in autumn season.
  • Accessions BBI-0348, BBE-0329 BBE-0266, BBE-216 and BBI-0348 are better performers identified having wider adaptability in different ago climatic conditions and also in different seasons.

Concluded Research Projects during 2013-14

PIG-3432 - Physiological characterisation of selected mulberry genetic resources with reference to water and nitrogen use efficiency 


  • Identification of mulberry accessions with specific traits associated with water and nitrogen use efficiency is a prerequisite for developing mulberry varieties with high input use efficiency. Towards this direction, 120 mulberry accessions were screened under progressive water deficit stress and also under low nitrogen input to identify high  performing accessions for different adaptive traits and better performing accessions based on multiple traits.

  • 17 accessions viz., MI-0214, MI-0768, ME-0016, MI-0025, MI-0332, ME-0244, ME-0107, MI-0699, MI-0026, MI-0256, MI-0477, ME-0125, MI-0298, MI-0762, MI-0437, MI-0763, MI-0314 were found to be superior based on multiple traits under water limited conditions. 

  • Two accessions viz., MI-0685 and MI-0683 showed superior performance only under low N input.

  • 17 accessions viz., MI-0256, MI-0332, MI-0768, MI-0762, MI-0477, MI-0622, MI-0226, MI-0657, MI-0763, MI-0346, MI-0025, MI-0699, MI-0314, MI-0214, MI-0670, MI-0827, MI-0161 performed well both under low and high N input.

PIE-3443 - Screening of mulberry germplasm accessions for tolerance to abiotic stress ( alkalinity and salinity) conditions


  • Identification of promising mulberry accessions for salt tolerance at whole plant level by using reliable traits like Na+ exclusion and Na+ /K+ ratios will be of immense value in breeding for salt tolerance. In the present study, 100 diverse mulberry accessions were selected based their rooting ability, yield potential and place of collection were screened  by imposing salinity stress (EC 6 and 8dS/m) and alkalinity stress (pH 8.5 and 9.0) in microplots  to identify tolerant accessions, as a first step to future breeding efforts.

  • 20 mulberry accessions viz., MI-0437, MI-0376, MI-0327, MI-0670, MI-0657, MI-0012, MI-0476, MI-0242, MI-0129, MI-0245, MI-0161,  MI-0763, MI-0716, MI-0310, MI-0145, MI-0497, MI-0499, MI-0027, MI-0139 & MI-0764 found tolerant to salinity and showed better performance than check S-776  at EC 8 ads/m.

  • The tolerant accessions continued to grow with very less or no leaf necrosis and  resulted in higher biomass and leaf yield/plant.  

  • Eighteen alkaline tolerant accessions viz., MI-0226, MI-0670, MI-0836, MI-0652, MI-0762, MI-0449, MI-0764, MI-0437, MI-0716, MI-0822, MI-0310, MI-0248, MI-0702, MI-0190, MI-0643, MI-0499, MI-0788 & MI-0466 were identified tolerant to alkalinity at pH 9.0. These accessions showed better performance than check AR-12

AIT-3450 : Long term conservation of egg/embryos of silkworm genetic resources (Bombyx mori L.) through cryo-preservation


  • Protocol for dechorionation of silkworm eggs was developed. Treatment of silkworm eggs with 2% NaOH for 2 minutes followed by 5 % NaOCl for 10 minutes effectively dechorionates the eggs. The equilibration time of cryoprotectants (CPAs) was standardized with 2.5% EG + 2.5% DMSO + 5% Glycerol + 4% Sorbitol and 5% EG + 5% DMSO + 10% Glycerol + 8% Sorbitol with survival of 65 %. Schedule for Long term preservation was developed for multivoltine eggs with survival of 76% with 2.5% EG + 2.5% DMSO + 5% Glycerol + 4% Sorbitol. Hosa Mysore and Mysore Princess found to be more tolerant to CPA treatment compared to the other races studied. 36h embryonic age found to be chill tolerant and 48h found to be chill sensitive.

Concluded Research Projects during 2012-13

FSL-3447: Development of Database management system for Silkworm genetic resources 

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AIP-3430: Biochemical Characterisation & evaluation of promising silkworm germplasm through enzyme kinetics to screen genetic hardiness among silkworm genetic resources.

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AIG-3431: Molecular Characterisation of silkworm germplasm & their genetic variations through expressed sequence tagged sites for associating gene specific markers with productive traits. 

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Please contact the Director, CSGRC, Hosur at director@csgrc.res.in for more details


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